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​ Glossary


A measurement of the quality of an organization's policies, products, programs, strategies, etc., and their comparison with standard measurements, or similar measurements of its peers.


Biodegradable waste is a type of waste, typically originating from plant or animal sources, which may be degraded by other living organisms. Waste that cannot be broken down by other living organisms are called non-biodegradable


A term describing the multitude of life-forms and species (flora and fauna) in an ecosystem. An ecosystem is a biological community living in a particular physical environment. (Read more...)


Fuels coming from biomass such as wood rejects, bark, black liquor produced during the production of virgin pulps, pitch oil, biomass part of mixed wastes and biogas produced during the anaerobic treatment of water. (Read more...)

Black liquor

Liquid residue from pulping that contains organic compounds (like lignin). This residue is burnt in paper mills to produce energy. The energy recovered is classified as renewable as it is coming from biomass.


Term for the sheet of board used for making packaging

Board grade

The height of the flute or the quality of the paper used to make the board defines the board grade

Chain of Custody (CoC)

Chain of Custody Certification applying to wood/fibre material and products. Chain of Custody is an information trail about the path taken by products from the forest or, in the case of recycled materials, from the reclamation site to the consumer including each stage of processing, transformation, manufacturing, and distribution where progress to the next stage of the supply chain involves a change of ownership.

Closed-loop system

Production system in which the waste or byproduct of one process or product is used in making another product. For example, recycling waste newspaper to make paper-board or other types of paper. (Read more...)


Material used to coat the board to increase performance/aesthetics e.g. Varnish


Papers and boards mainly used in the manufacture of corrugated board. They are made from virgin or recovered fibres. Included are kraftliner, testliner, semi-chemical fluting and recycled fluting. (Read more...)


Conversion in the context of packaging is the process of burning a blank sheet of board into the finished product

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

Corporate Social Responsibility: a concept whereby organisations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders, communities and the environment in all aspects of their operations.

Corrugated board

Structured board made by a corrugator usually formed by gluing one fluting to two flat-facing sheets of containerboard (kraftliner or testliner). (Read more...)


The machine that makes the corrugated board from fluting and liner papers

Die cut (D/C)

Cuts and scores formed on corrugated sheets with a steel rule die like a biscuit cutter, cutting out the biscuit shapes

ECT (edge crush test)

Edge crush test is a laboratory test method that is used to measure the cross-direction crushing of a sample of corrugated board.

Environmental Management Scheme (EMS)

Environmental Management Systems. A set of processes and practices that enable an organisation to reduce its environmental impact and increase its operating efficiency.


Relates to the size of the fluting. Common flute sizes are "A", "B", "C", "E" and "F"


A single ridge in the fluting medium or a single ridge on the corrugator roll. The ‘wavy’ middle layer in corrugated board. Also know as fluting

Folding carton box

A folding carton box is a paper based product, build up from recovered fibres and is a low grammage solid board (typically <600 grm/sqm). An example would be a cereal box. (Read more...)

Forestry Stewardship Council (FSC)

Forestry Stewardship Council. The FSC is an independent, non-governmental, organisation established to promote the responsible management of the world’s forests. The FSC has developed internationally-recognised forestry certification principles and a system of tracing, verifying and labelling timber and wood/fibre products which is based on FSC-certified forests.

Fossil fuels

Fuels originating from natural resources (gas, oil, coal, peat and lignite).

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

The GRI (Global Reporting Initiative) reporting framework is the generally accepted framework for reporting on an organisation’s economic, environmental and social performance. The sustainability reporting guidelines give the reporting principles, and the list of performance indicators, for each of the three key areas that should be disclosed in a sustainability report.


Residues of oils and other hazardous wastes (building wastes containing asbestos, old fuels, ink residues, etc.). All these wastes are treated by external authorised companies.

ISO 14001

Scheme certified by independent third party that ensures that the operation certified applies internationally recognised standards and procedures of environmental management.

ISO 9001

Scheme certified by independent third party that ensures that the operation certified applies internationally recognised standards and procedures of quality management.

kraft board

Board made from paper which has been made from mainly virgin wood fibres

kraftliner (also known as kraft paper)

Paper made mainly from virgin wood fibres. (Read more...)


The disposal of solid waste in either internal or external landfill in accordance with national legislation.


The paper used on either the inside or outside of the corrugated pack or board

Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO)

A Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) is a legally constituted organisation created by private persons or organisations with no participation or representation of any government. In those cases where NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status insofar as it excludes government representatives from membership of the organisation.

Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)

Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification. The PEFC is an independent, non-governmental organisation which promotes sustainably managed forests through independent third party certification.


Wood pulp for paper production (Read more...)


REACH is the Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It came into force on 1 June 2007 to streamline and improve the former legislative framework on the use of chemicals within the European Union (EU). REACH places greater responsibility on industry to manage the risks that chemicals may pose to the health and the environment. In principle, REACH applies to all chemicals: not only chemicals used in industrial processes but also in our day-to-day life, for example in cleaning products, paints as well as in articles such as clothes, paper, and packaging. (Read more...)

Recovered paper

Used paper and board that has been collected and classified for the purpose of recycling. Mechanical treatment is used to remove unusable materials. (Read more...) ​

Retail ready packaging

Packaging made especially for the retail environment which considers both the shelf replenishment and the supply chain requirements. (Read more...)

Semi-chemical fluting

Fluting which has special properties in order to help maintain its strength moist and humid environments. (Read more...)

Sheet feeder

A specific manufacturing site which only produces board - no converting is done on site

Sheet plant

A manufacturing site which only converts blank boards into packaging boxes

Single face corrugated

A corrugated board without the outer liner to show the fluting. (Read more...)

Single wall

A piece of corrugated board with only one flute

Solid board

Solid board is a paper based product, build up from recovered fibres. The product can be finished with a variety of paper liners. (Read more...) 


Paper manufactured from recycled fibres. (Read more...)

Triple wall

Corrugated board made with 3 layers of fluting to increase its strength

Virgin fibre

Pulp obtained through a chemical process used to remove lignin from wood. As a result, the fibre can be used to produce paper. The lignin residue and other organic compounds are subsequently collected and used in the formation of black liquor. (Read more...)

White liner

Container board is usually brown but also can be bleached white. When white paper used to make corrugated board it can help increase the quality of the print

White top liner

The white outside layer on paper on the corrugated board


A scored and slotted sheet that is machine assembled around a product to make a finished box. (Read more...)